What Is Bone Graft? What Are The Risk Factors Involved?

A bone graft surgery is a surgical procedure that is done to treat or fix problems in the bones or joints. Bone grafting is also known as transplanting of bone tissue. The treatment procedure is beneficial and effective for fixing bones that are damaged due to trauma or joints with problems. 

The process also helps in growing a bone around the implanted device, for example, total knee replacement which is done when there is a fracture or bone loss. Bone graft fills the space due to the absence of a bone and helps in providing stability to the structure. 

The bone used in bone graft may be artificial or synthetic or can be taken from a donor. Once the body accepts the new bone, it will provide a framework for the new bone to grow. 
Bone grafts are of two types mainly. They are allograft and autograft. The surgeon will use the type of graft depending on the kind of injury. 

Allograft: is a technique that uses bone from a cadaver or a deceased donor. It is cleaned and stored in a tissue bank. They are mainly used in the reconstruction of the knee, hip, or long bones such as arms and legs. 

One advantage of following this procedure is that there is no need for additional surgery to acquire the bone. Since there is no use of surgery or incision, the risk of infection is comparatively low. 

The procedure uses bones that have no living cell to minimize the risk of rejection online in organ transplant in which the live cells are used, hence high risk of rejection. Additionally, there is no need to match the receiver’s and donor’s blood type as there is no living bone marrow in the bone.  

Autograft: is the procedure that uses a bone from inside the same person, such as from ribs, pelvis, wrist, or hips stem cell therapy in Hyderabad.

What Are The Risks Involved With Bone Grafting?

The general risk factors involved with surgical procedures are infections, bleedings, and reactions to anesthesia. The other risks of bone graft surgery are: 
  • Swelling
  • Pain
  • Nerve injury
  • Inflammation
  • Blood clot
  • Reabsorption of the graft
  • Rejection of bone graft

Why Is Bone Grafting Performed?

  • There are many reasons for option bone grafting. Some of the primary reasons are: 
  • When the fractures are multiple or complex or for injuries that do not heal after the initial treatment. 
  • Fusion is often done on the spine is helps two bones heal better and at the same rate across the diseased joint. 
  • Regeneration is used to help bones recover or grow back that are lost due to injury, infection, or disease. The process involves using either small quantities of bone from bone cavities or large sections of bones. 
  • A graft helps heal the area around the implanted device such as plates, screws, or replacements.

What Is The Recovery Process? 

The recovery process after bone grafting depends on various factors such as the type of surgery. Also, it depends on the person's age, and physical as well as overall health. The recovery time could range from two weeks to two months or more than two months. 

The surgeon generally gives a detailed set of instructions for the recovery period and may also prescribe medicines depending on the intensity of the pain experienced by the patient. The patient will heal better and recover faster by following a healthy diet and avoid smoking altogether. 

It is essential to consult a doctor or surgeon before purchasing any over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Some people may have a drain in the wound after surgery and should go to a doctor to get the required help. Go for follow-ups and get regular checkups to remove the drain and ensure the operation is healing progressively.